Understanding complex systems takes far longer than we estimate initially.
Hindsight is easier than foresight.
One “shortcut” is to link new solutions to old solutions in different ways.
Could I have solved this problem using that tool or that technique?
Could this system work better if that process was automated?
This isn’t to say that we can’t understand complex systems in due course, rather that understanding complex systems is about unknown unknowns and bearing in mind that as fact patterns change over time, we might be looking at an entirely new system if the lens through which people interact with the system is changing rapidly.